Tooth Sensitivity

Online Dental Education Library

Our team of dental specialists and staff strive to improve the overall health of our patients by focusing on preventing, diagnosing and treating conditions associated with your teeth and gums. Please use our dental library to learn more about dental problems and treatments available. If you have questions or need to schedule an appointment, contact us.

 


A

Air abrasion - is a drill-less technique that is being used by some dentists to remove tooth decay and for other applications
Amalgam - Material made from mercury and other alloy mixtures used to restore a drilled portion of a tooth. 
Anesthesia - Medications used to relieve pain.
Anterior teeth - Front teeth. Also called incisors and cuspids.
Arch - The upper or lower jaw.

B
Baby bottle tooth decay - Caused by sugary substances in breast milk and some juices, which combine with saliva to form pools inside the baby's mouth.
Bicuspids -Back teeth used for chewing.
Bitewings - X-rays that help a dentist diagnose cavities.
Bonding - Application of tooth-colored resin materials to the surface of the teeth.
Bridge - A fixed or removable appliance that replaces lost teeth.
Bruxism - Teeth grinding.

C
CAD/CAM dentistry, (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing in dentistry), is an area of dentistry utilizing CAD/CAM technologies to produce different types of dental restorations, including crowns, crownlays, veneers,  inlays and onlays, fixed bridges, dental implant restorations and orthodontic appliances.
Calculus (tartar)-  Calculus is hardened plaque (a sticky substance) that has been left on the tooth for some time and is now firmly attached to the tooth surface. Calculus forms above and below the gum line and can only be removed with special dental instruments.
Canal - The narrow chamber inside the tooth's root.
Canines - Also called cuspids.
Canker sore - One that occurs on the delicate tissues inside your mouth. A canker sore is usually light-colored at its base and can have a red exterior border. 
Caries - Another term for decay, which causes cavities.
Cold sore - Usually occurs on the outside of the mouth, usually on or near the nose or lips. A cold sore is contagious because it is caused by the herpes simplex virus, and it is usually painful and filled with fluid. 
Composite filling - Tooth colored restorations, also known as resin fillings. 
Composite resin - A tooth colored resin combined with silica or porcelain and used as a restoration material.
Contouring - The process of reshaping teeth.
Crown - An artificial cover that is placed on the top of a tooth following restoration.
Cusps - The pointed parts on top of the back teeth's chewing surface.
Cuspids - Front teeth that typically have a protruding edge.

D
Dentin - The tooth layer underneath the enamel.
Denture - A removable set of teeth.

E
Endodontics - A form of dentistry that addresses problems affecting the tooth's root or nerve.

F
Fluoride - A naturally occurring substance added to water, toothpastes and some rinses and used for strengthening the tooth's enamel.
Fluorosis - A harmless over-exposure to fluoride and resulting sometimes in tooth discoloration.

G
Gingiva - Another word for gum tissue.
Gingivitis - A minor disease of the gums caused by plaque.
Gum disease - An infection of the gum tissues. Also called periodontal disease.

I
Impacted teeth - A condition in which a tooth fails to erupt or only partially erupts.
Implant - A permanent appliance used to replace a missing tooth.
Incisor - Front teeth with cutting edges; located in the center or on the sides near the front.
Inlay - An indirect artificial filling made of various materials, including porcelain, resin, or gold.  fitted to a cavity in a tooth and cemented into place.
Intracoronal - situated or made within the crown of a tooth

L
Laminate veneer - A shell that is bonded to the enamel of a front tooth. The shell is usually thin and made from porcelain resin.

M
Malocclusion - Bad bite relationship
Mandible - The lower jaw
Maxilla - The upper jaw
Molar - Usually the largest teeth, near the rear of the mouth. Molars have large chewing surfaces

N
Nightguard - Night mouth guards are bite pads that are worn at night as you sleep. There are also used as mouth guards for day use. These guards are made of high-grade plastic and are custom fit to the mouth. This device keeps the upper teeth from grinding with the lower teeth, offering an instant solution to teeth clenching problems.
Neuromuscular Dentistry - Are more than the aches and pains felt in and around the neck and head that are associated with your teeth and jaw.

O
Onlay - An indirect artificial filling made of various materials, including porcelain, resin, or gold;  fitted to a cavity in a tooth and cemented into place. It is designed to protect the chewing surface of a tooth by extending to replace a cusp.
Orthodontics - A field of dentistry that deals with tooth and jaw alignment.
Overdenture - A non-fixed dental appliance applied to a small number of natural teeth or implants.

P
Palate - Roof of the mouth.
Partial denture - A removable appliance that replaces teeth. Also called a bridge. 
Pedodontics - A field of dentistry that deals with children's teeth.
Perio pocket - An opening formed by receding gums.
Periodontal disease - Infection of the gum tissues. Also called gum disease.
Periodontist - A dentist who treats diseases of the gums.
Permanent teeth - The teeth that erupt after primary teeth. Also called adult teeth.
Plaque -Plaque is a sticky, colorless, almost invisible film or substance that forms on the teeth after sleep or periods between brushing. It is a growing colony of living bacteria, food debris, and saliva. 
Posterior teeth - The bicuspids and molars. Also called the back teeth.
Primary teeth - A person's first set of teeth. Also called baby teeth or temporary teeth.
Prophylaxis - The act of cleaning the teeth.
Prosthodontics - The field of dentistry that deals with artificial dental appliances.
Pulp - The inner tissues of the tooth containing blood, nerves and connective tissue.

R
Radiographs - Diagnostic X-rays essential for detection of decay, tumors, cysts, and bone loss.  X-rays also help determine tooth and root positions.
Receding gum - A condition in which the gums separate from the tooth, allowing bacteria and other substances to attack the tooth's enamel and surrounding bone.
Resin filling - An artificial filling used to restore teeth. Also called a composite filling.
Root canal - A procedure in which a tooth's nerve is removed and an inner canal cleansed and later filled.
Root planing - Scraping or cleansing of teeth to remove heavy buildup of tartar below the gum line.

S
Sealant - A synthetic material placed on the tooth's surface that protects the enamel and chewing surfaces.

T
Tartar - A hardened substance (also called calculus) that sticks to the tooth's surface.
Tooth decay –   Tooth decay occurs when the acids found in plaque erode the natural enamel found on the teeth.  This phenomenon can easily be prevented by using proper home hygiene methods. Tooth decay is one of the leading causes of tooth loss, and its treatment often requires complex dental procedures.Teeth polishing: Removal of  stain and plaque that is not otherwise removed during tooth brushing and scaling.
TMD - Temporomandibular joint disorder. Health problems related to the jaw joint just in front of the ear.

V
Veneer - A laminate applied or bonded to the tooth.

W
Whitening - A process that employs special bleaching agents for restoring the color of teeth.
Wisdom tooth - Third set of molars that erupt last in adolescence.
 

Tooth sensitivity.If your teeth seem especially sensitive after you brush them or when you consume certain foods or beverages, you're hardly alone: By one estimate, around 35 percent of the U.S. population experiences some degree of tooth sensitivity. While the difference between sensitivity and pain may be somewhat blurry, we can say that sensitive teeth usually produce discomfort in response to a stimulus like temperature, pressure, or even the sweetness of particular foods. What causes tooth sensitivity — and what should you do about it?

In general, tooth sensitivity results when dentin, the living tissue that makes up most of the “body” of the tooth, begins transmitting sensations to nerves deep in the tooth's inner core. The nerves relay these sensations to the brain, and they're felt as pain. To understand how this works, let's take an even closer look at your teeth.

Tooth Anatomy 101

Blowup of Dentin.

Dentin is a sturdy, calcified tissue, that can't usually be seen. It's normally covered by super-hard enamel on the visible part of the tooth (the crown), and by softer tissue called cementum on the tooth's roots (which typically lie below the gum line). The dentin itself is composed of many tiny tubules. When these tubules become exposed to the environment of the mouth, tooth sensitivity and pain may result.

There are several reasons why the dentin can become exposed. For one, the gums may recede (shrink down), revealing some of the tooth's root surfaces. This can be caused by genetic factors, periodontal disease, excessively vigorous brushing — or a combination of all three. This problem may be worsened if the tooth's roots weren't completely covered by cementum during their development, as sometimes occurs.

Another factor that may contribute to sensitivity is the erosion of tooth surfaces due to excessive acid in the diet. While acids occur naturally in the mouth, habitually drinking sodas and sports drinks can severely erode teeth — and brushing soon after you drink actually worsens the effect. That's because these acids soften the outer surfaces of the teeth, and brushing then makes it easy to wear them away. It's best to wait for an hour afterwards, to give your saliva a chance to neutralize the acid.

Tooth Decay.Tooth decay can also cause sensitivity. Decay may not only expose dentin, but can work its way down to the nerves themselves — at which point, your pain level may escalate. And sometimes, even dental work itself can cause sensitivity. Because the same tooth structures are involved, it may sometimes take a few days after a cavity is filled, for example, for a tooth to “calm down.”

Dealing With Tooth Sensitivity

What can you do about sensitive teeth? If it's a relatively minor irritation, try not to brush the affected teeth too long or hard. Make sure you're using a soft-bristled brush and the proper, gentle brushing technique. Always use a toothpaste containing fluoride, as this ingredient is proven to increase the strength of tooth enamel, which helps resist erosion. You can also try a toothpaste with ingredients designed especially for sensitive teeth, such as potassium. Studies show that these can be effective… but it may take approximately 4 – 6 weeks for you to notice the difference.

If sensitivity persists, however — or if your tooth pain becomes more intense — don't wait to get an examination to determine what's causing the problem. Once diagnosed, the most appropriate way to reduce the sensitivity will be recommended. Some treatments may include concentrated fluoride varnishes, prescription mouthrinses, or materials that are bonded to the outer surfaces of teeth. But tooth sensitivity may also be an early warning sign of other dental problems — and the sooner they're taken care of, the better off you'll be!

Related Articles

Tooth Sensitivity - Dear Doctor Magazine

Treatment of Tooth Sensitivity As many as 35% of the U.S. population suffers from tooth sensitivity. Causes include overly aggressive brushing, which causes the gum tissue to recede exposing the root surfaces of the teeth; and acidic beverages, which erode the teeth. Fortunately, there are products available for use at home or in the dental office that can help... Read Article

Sensitive Teeth - Dear Doctor Magazine

Sensitive Teeth Tooth sensitivity — to hot or cold, for example — is often a problem where the gums have receded, exposing the root surfaces of the teeth. These areas of the teeth have sensitive nerve fibers. Find out what steps you can take to minimize this problem... Read Article

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