Online Dental Education Library
Our team of dental specialists and staff strive to improve the overall health of our patients by focusing on preventing, diagnosing and treating conditions associated with your teeth and gums. Please use our dental library to learn more about dental problems and treatments available. If you have questions or need to schedule an appointment, contact us.
Air abrasion - is a drill-less technique that is being used by some dentists to remove tooth decay and for other applications
Amalgam - Material made from mercury and other alloy mixtures used to restore a drilled portion of a tooth.
Anesthesia - Medications used to relieve pain.
Anterior teeth - Front teeth. Also called incisors and cuspids.
Arch - The upper or lower jaw.
Baby bottle tooth decay - Caused by sugary substances in breast milk and some juices, which combine with saliva to form pools inside the baby's mouth.
Bicuspids -Back teeth used for chewing.
Bitewings - X-rays that help a dentist diagnose cavities.
Bonding - Application of tooth-colored resin materials to the surface of the teeth.
Bridge - A fixed or removable appliance that replaces lost teeth.
Bruxism - Teeth grinding.
CAD/CAM dentistry, (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing in dentistry), is an area of dentistry utilizing CAD/CAM technologies to produce different types of dental restorations, including crowns, crownlays, veneers, inlays and onlays, fixed bridges, dental implant restorations and orthodontic appliances.
Calculus (tartar)- Calculus is hardened plaque (a sticky substance) that has been left on the tooth for some time and is now firmly attached to the tooth surface. Calculus forms above and below the gum line and can only be removed with special dental instruments.
Canal - The narrow chamber inside the tooth's root.
Canines - Also called cuspids.
Canker sore - One that occurs on the delicate tissues inside your mouth. A canker sore is usually light-colored at its base and can have a red exterior border.
Caries - Another term for decay, which causes cavities.
Cold sore - Usually occurs on the outside of the mouth, usually on or near the nose or lips. A cold sore is contagious because it is caused by the herpes simplex virus, and it is usually painful and filled with fluid.
Composite filling - Tooth colored restorations, also known as resin fillings.
Composite resin - A tooth colored resin combined with silica or porcelain and used as a restoration material.
Contouring - The process of reshaping teeth.
Crown - An artificial cover that is placed on the top of a tooth following restoration.
Cusps - The pointed parts on top of the back teeth's chewing surface.
Cuspids - Front teeth that typically have a protruding edge.
Dentin - The tooth layer underneath the enamel.
Denture - A removable set of teeth.
Endodontics - A form of dentistry that addresses problems affecting the tooth's root or nerve.
Fluoride - A naturally occurring substance added to water, toothpastes and some rinses and used for strengthening the tooth's enamel.
Fluorosis - A harmless over-exposure to fluoride and resulting sometimes in tooth discoloration.
Gingiva - Another word for gum tissue.
Gingivitis - A minor disease of the gums caused by plaque.
Gum disease - An infection of the gum tissues. Also called periodontal disease.
Impacted teeth - A condition in which a tooth fails to erupt or only partially erupts.
Implant - A permanent appliance used to replace a missing tooth.
Incisor - Front teeth with cutting edges; located in the center or on the sides near the front.
Inlay - An indirect artificial filling made of various materials, including porcelain, resin, or gold. fitted to a cavity in a tooth and cemented into place.
Intracoronal - situated or made within the crown of a tooth
Laminate veneer - A shell that is bonded to the enamel of a front tooth. The shell is usually thin and made from porcelain resin.
Malocclusion - Bad bite relationship
Mandible - The lower jaw
Maxilla - The upper jaw
Molar - Usually the largest teeth, near the rear of the mouth. Molars have large chewing surfaces
Nightguard - Night mouth guards are bite pads that are worn at night as you sleep. There are also used as mouth guards for day use. These guards are made of high-grade plastic and are custom fit to the mouth. This device keeps the upper teeth from grinding with the lower teeth, offering an instant solution to teeth clenching problems.
Neuromuscular Dentistry - Are more than the aches and pains felt in and around the neck and head that are associated with your teeth and jaw.
Onlay - An indirect artificial filling made of various materials, including porcelain, resin, or gold; fitted to a cavity in a tooth and cemented into place. It is designed to protect the chewing surface of a tooth by extending to replace a cusp.
Orthodontics - A field of dentistry that deals with tooth and jaw alignment.
Overdenture - A non-fixed dental appliance applied to a small number of natural teeth or implants.
Palate - Roof of the mouth.
Partial denture - A removable appliance that replaces teeth. Also called a bridge.
Pedodontics - A field of dentistry that deals with children's teeth.
Perio pocket - An opening formed by receding gums.
Periodontal disease - Infection of the gum tissues. Also called gum disease.
Periodontist - A dentist who treats diseases of the gums.
Permanent teeth - The teeth that erupt after primary teeth. Also called adult teeth.
Plaque -Plaque is a sticky, colorless, almost invisible film or substance that forms on the teeth after sleep or periods between brushing. It is a growing colony of living bacteria, food debris, and saliva.
Posterior teeth - The bicuspids and molars. Also called the back teeth.
Primary teeth - A person's first set of teeth. Also called baby teeth or temporary teeth.
Prophylaxis - The act of cleaning the teeth.
Prosthodontics - The field of dentistry that deals with artificial dental appliances.
Pulp - The inner tissues of the tooth containing blood, nerves and connective tissue.
Radiographs - Diagnostic X-rays essential for detection of decay, tumors, cysts, and bone loss. X-rays also help determine tooth and root positions.
Receding gum - A condition in which the gums separate from the tooth, allowing bacteria and other substances to attack the tooth's enamel and surrounding bone.
Resin filling - An artificial filling used to restore teeth. Also called a composite filling.
Root canal - A procedure in which a tooth's nerve is removed and an inner canal cleansed and later filled.
Root planing - Scraping or cleansing of teeth to remove heavy buildup of tartar below the gum line.
Sealant - A synthetic material placed on the tooth's surface that protects the enamel and chewing surfaces.
Tartar - A hardened substance (also called calculus) that sticks to the tooth's surface.
Tooth decay – Tooth decay occurs when the acids found in plaque erode the natural enamel found on the teeth. This phenomenon can easily be prevented by using proper home hygiene methods. Tooth decay is one of the leading causes of tooth loss, and its treatment often requires complex dental procedures.Teeth polishing: Removal of stain and plaque that is not otherwise removed during tooth brushing and scaling.
TMD - Temporomandibular joint disorder. Health problems related to the jaw joint just in front of the ear.
Veneer - A laminate applied or bonded to the tooth.
Whitening - A process that employs special bleaching agents for restoring the color of teeth.
Wisdom tooth - Third set of molars that erupt last in adolescence.
If gum recession is affecting your health or your appearance, a procedure called gingival (gum) grafting may be recommended. Although it might sound scary, a variety of gum grafting procedures are routinely performed by periodontists (specialists in the area of gingival tissue), and by some general dentists with specialized training in this field.
Gum grafting involves carefully placing a small amount of new tissue in an area where little or no gum tissue currently exists — typically recommended to prevent further gum recession or to cover root surfaces of your teeth that have become exposed. The tissue used in this procedure may come from a variety of sources but usually is taken from the palate (roof of the mouth), after the area has been numbed for your comfort. Then it is delicately sutured (stitched) in place where it's needed, using suturing material which may be finer than a human hair.
Your body's natural recovery process takes over after the grafting procedure is complete. During this time, new blood vessels grow into the graft and help it to become integrated with the surrounding tissue. A successful graft can reduce or eliminate problems like tooth sensitivity and further gum recession, as well as improve the aesthetics of your smile.
How do you know if you need a gum graft? Often, you can clearly see or feel the problem. Exposed tooth roots can make your teeth look overly “long,” and they also generally appear somewhat darker than your pearly white crowns. Gum recession is a condition that can increase with age, as we recognize when we hear the phrase “long in the tooth.” But the potential problems of gum recession aren't just cosmetic — they can also seriously impact your oral health.
A Closer Look at Your Gums
Inside your mouth, gum tissue forms a barrier that resists the vigorous mechanical (and microbial) effects of eating, chewing and biting. Gums may begin to recede, or shrink down, for several reasons.
One is ineffective oral hygiene: This includes both inadequate brushing, which fails to remove dental plaque; and excessive brushing, which erodes the tissue. Foreign objects in the mouth that rub against the gums, like poorly fitting removable dentures, tongue bolts, or even fingernails, can also contribute to gum recession.
When the tooth's roots lose the protection of healthy gum tissue, they can become extremely sensitive to hot or cold temperatures, causing pain when you consume many foods and drinks. Worse, missing gum tissue makes it easier for bacteria to penetrate the roots and cause decay — or for minor trauma to result in rapid gum recession. In either case, the eventual result may be tooth loss. That's why proper treatment of gum recession is so important.
Treating Gum Recession With Gingival Grafting
After a thorough examination and assessment of your teeth, gums and overall health, the gingival grafting procedure may be recommended. The tissue used in this procedure may be obtained from a variety of sources: an area next to the area of recession, from the hard palate, or donated tissue from another person, which has been medically processed to make it safe to use.
There are several different methods of grafting. For example, if you have lost gum tissue in an area of your mouth that's not highly visible when you talk or smile, additional gum tissue can be placed there to prevent further recession without trying to cover the tooth-root surface completely. This procedure is referred to as a free gingival graft (since the tissue is separated from its blood supply), and it takes about 45 minutes to perform. It is very predictable with a very high success rate. If the objective is to cover root surfaces, the procedure becomes more complicated and will take longer, but is still very successful.
Grafting procedures are typically carried out under local anesthesia, and are generally pain-free. You should experience very little discomfort after the surgery, even if tissue has been removed from your palate, because that donor area is usually covered by a soothing, liquid band-aid-like material. Fortunately, any discomfort that you do have can be alleviated with over-the-counter or prescription anti-inflammatory medication, and it is generally short-lived. A soft diet (and an antibiotic) may also be recommended for a week or so thereafter, enabling the tissues to heal fully; otherwise, your normal activities will not be limited.
Keeping Your Gums Healthy
Following a gum graft, it's more important than ever to practice good oral hygiene; this will help prevent gum problems from developing in the future. Your regimen should include proper brushing with fluoride toothpaste, daily flossing, a healthy diet and regular dental and periodontal checkups. Maintaining healthy gums is a key to keeping up your overall oral health — and preserving your smile.
Periodontal Plastic Surgery Millions of Americans have some degree of gum recession — a loss of the tough, pink tissue that surrounds teeth. Receding gums can cause anything from minor tooth sensitivity to tooth loss in very severe cases. Fortunately, the field of periodontal plastic surgery has made enormous strides in devising techniques, including grafting, to deal with the problem of lost or damaged gum tissue... Read Article
Periodontal Surgery — Where Art Meets Science This article is an overview of how the art of plastic surgical procedures and the science of periodontics can enhance the health and beauty of your teeth. You will learn what periodontal surgery is designed to do, what makes it successful and what to expect during treatment... Read Article